Seismic Data Processing (Basic)

Business Context
During the last decade seismic has become the key tool to exploration and development success. With the advance of computer technology, processing has increasingly helped to acquire a competitive edge. There are various ways to acquire seismic data and a variety of objectives for which the data can be used. Hence there is no standard procedure in seismic data processing. There is also a drive to extract more and more from the data and therefore scope for reprocessing. This course gives an overview of the steps that are common in seismic data processing and discusses for each step the variety of alternative implementations together with their inherent assumptions and strengths and weaknesses. This course should enable participants to assess the impact of different processing methods with respect to the stated objectives.

Who should attend
Geophysicists -acquisition, processing and interpretation- who are actively involved in seismic processing and/or liaise with seismic processing contractors? Geophysicists who are involved in special studies and should have a thorough understanding of conventional processing.

Content of the program
The following steps in seismic processing will be discussed:
- Static corrections
- Velocity analysis
- Deconvolution: stochastic and deterministic
- Signal-to-noise enhancement techniques
- Multiple elimination
- Stacking processes
- Dmo (dip move-out)
- Migration: time and depth
- Velocity modeling.

Learning methods and tools
At the end of the course the participants will have obtained a thorough understanding and appreciation of the many alternative processing approaches that are commonly applied. They can act as processing geophysicist and/or liaise with the seismic processing contractor; they will be able to assess the implications of each particular processing route.

The course includes theory, exercises and examples from both synthetic and real data; a handout that covers all course material will be made available.

The course is designed for personnel who work in the exploration industry but have little or no exploration-specific technical background. This includes administration staff, technical support staff, and those in management or professional roles whose background is in a field other than Earth Science.

Course objectives
The course provides an overview of the business of petroleum exploration from acreage selection through to final discovery of an oil or gas field. It highlights the multi-disciplinary nature of the business, examines the tools and methods used in exploration, and provides an understanding of the technical terminology.

Course outline
Participants will be exposed to the basic concepts of acreage management, exploration geology, petroleum geophysics, rotary drilling, and economics and risk assessment:
Acreage acquisition and legal aspects
- How exploration groups are put together (joint ventures, floats, operators, non-operators)
- How companies acquire exploration acreage (permits, gazettals, open acreage, bidding, work programs, farmins, joint ventures)
- Legal obligations and moral responsibilities (legislation, environmental controls)

Petroleum geology
- Why companies explore where they do (rock types and properties, geological models, prospectivity)
- Where oil and gas come from (source, seal, reservoir, generation, migration, trapping mechanisms)
- How oil and gas fields are found (basin analysis, regional studies, play concepts, prospect generation)

Petroleum geophysics
- How explorers determine what it looks like below the surface of the earth (remote sensing)
- How seismic works (acquisition, processing, 2D and 3D surveys)
- What seismic tells us (interpretation, mapping, hydrocarbon indicators)

Exploration drilling
- Types of drilling rigs (land rigs, jackups, drill ships, semi-submersibles)
- How rotary wells are drilled (hoisting, rotating, circulation, control)
- Information obtained from wells (cuttings, cores, logs, well seismic)
- What happens after the well is drilled (abandon, suspend, test)

Economics and risk
- Why do we drill so many dry holes (outcomes, prospect risking and ranking)
- Differences between technical success and commercial success (costs, prices, infrastructure)
- How do we handle the risks involved (geological risk - POS, commercial risk – EMV)
- The “Exploration Game” An fun opportunity to draw the leanings of the day together

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